GPR uses transmitting and receiving antennae. The transmitting antenna radiates short pulses of the high-frequency (usually polarized) radio waves into the ground. When the wave hits a buried object or a boundary with different dielectric constants, the receiving antenna records variations in the reflected return signal. The greater the contrast in electrical (and to some extent magnetic) properties between two materials at an interface, the stronger the reflected signal, and therefore the greater the amplitude of reflected waves. When travel times of energy pulses are measured, and their velocity through the ground is known, distance (or depth in the ground) can be accurately measured.
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