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Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT)

Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT)

Phased array technology is the ability to modify electronically the acoustic probe characteristics.

Probe modifications are performed by introducing time shifts in the signals sent to (pulse) and received from (echo) individual elements of an array probe

Any UT technique for flaw detection and sizing can be applied using phased array probes.

Ultrasonic waves are mechanical vibrations induced in an elastic medium (the test piece) by the piezocrystal probe excited by an electrical voltage. Typical frequencies of ultrasonic waves are in the range of 0.1 MHz to 50 MHz. Most of the industrial applications require frequencies between 0.5 MHz and 15 MHz.



  • Speed: scanning with phased arrays is much faster than single-probe conventional mechanical systems, at the same time offering better coverage.


  • Flexibility: setups can be changed in a few minutes, and typically a lot more component-dimension flexibility is available.


  • Inspection angles: a wide variety of inspection angles can be used, depending on the requirements and the array.

  • Small footprint: small matrix arrays can give significantly more flexibility than conventional probes for inspecting restricted areas.

  • Imaging: showing a "true depth" image of defects is much easier to interpret than a waveform. The data can be saved and redisplayed as required.

Time of Flight Diffraction (ToFD)

  • ToFD is now becoming a standard technique for both power generation and petrochemical industries. ToFD can also be performed by phased array probes; ToFD is simply a procedure that uses two probes in pitch and catch mode.

  • The main difference between power generation and petrochemical applications is that power generation applications typically user raster ToFD, while the petrochemical industry and other industries use linear ToFD.

  • Raster ToFD collects more data and is more accurate, while linear ToFD is faster. Most of the weld caps in power generation are removed, which permits raster scanning.

Types of Waves

  • Lateral Wave

  • Backwall Reflection

  • Mode converted Shear Wave

Equipment and Accessories

                                                     Olympus MX-2

PAUT Probes and Wedges


ToFD Probes and Wedges






          Olympus COBRA Scanner


Olympus CHAIN Scanner

Corrosion Mapping- HydroForm



NDT Setup Builder

ES Beam Tool

         Omni PC






PAUT & ToFD are usually used for the inspection of critical structural metals, pipeline welds, aerospace components, and similar applications where the additional information supplied by PAUT & ToFD is valuable. However, realistically, there is no "typical application" for phased arrays. PAUT & ToFD are very flexible and can address many types of problems. Consequently, ultrasonic PAUT & ToFD are being used in a wide variety of industries, where the technology has inherent advantages.


These industries include aerospace, automotive, nuclear power, steel mills, pipe mills, petrochemical, pipeline construction, general manufacturing, construction, and a selection of special applications.

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